“Five generations of Computers” Our journey of the five generations of computers starts in 1942 with vacuum tube circuitry and goes to the present day and beyond
First Generation of Computers (1942-1955)
The beginning of commercial computer age is from UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer). The first generation computers were used during 1942-1955. They were based on vacuum tubes. Examples of first generation computers are ENIVAC and UNIVAC-1. if yor want read about computer in Hindi then click
was vacuum tube invented in 1904 by John Ambrose Fleming.
Vacuum tubes were the only electronic component available during those days.
• Vacuum tube technology made possible to make electronic digital computers.
• These computers could calculate data in millisecond.
The computers were very large in size.
• They consumed a large amount of energy.
• Limited commercial use.
• Very slow speed.
• Used machine language only.
• Used magnetic drums which provide very less data storage.
Second Generation Computers (1955-1964)
The second generation computers used transistors. The size of the computers was decreased by replacing vacuum tubes with transistors. The examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164 etc.
The three physicists who invented the transistor; William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain were awarded with the Nobel Prize. “Five Generations of Computers” continue
Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers.
• Used less energy and were not heated.
• Better speed and could calculate data in microseconds
• Used faster peripherals like tape drives, magnetic disks, printer etc.
• Used Assembly language instead of Machine language.
Cooling system was required
Costly and not versatile
• Constant maintenance was required
• Only used for specific purposes
Third Generation Computers (1964-1975)
The Third generation computers used the integrated circuits (IC). The first IC was invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about ¼ square inch. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors. The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive. The examples of third generation computers are IBM 370, IBM System/360, UNIVAC 1108 and UNIVAC AC 9000 etc.
An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated.
Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce invented Integrated Circuits. While at Fairchild, Noyce developed the integrated circuit. If you want to know about share market in Hindi then you guys can read this article
Smaller in size as compared to previous generations.
• More reliable.
• Used less energy.
• Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.
- Air conditioning was required.
- Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips. Five Generations of Computers continue
Fourth Generation Computers (1975-Present)
The fourth generation computers started with the invention of Microprocessor. The Microprocessor contains thousands of ICs. The LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuit was designed.
It greatly reduced the size of computer. The size of modern Microprocessors is usually one square inch. It can contain millions of electronic circuits. The examples of fourth generation computers are Apple Macintosh & IBM PC.
The Intel 4004 was the world’s first `. Microprocessors were invented by – Ted Hoff, along with a handful of visionary colleagues working at a young Silicon Valley start-up called Intel.
More powerful and reliable than previous generations.
• Small in size
• Fast processing power with less power consumption
• Fan for heat discharging and thus to keep cold.
• Cheapest among all generations
• All types of High level languages can be used in this type of computers
The latest technology is required for manufacturing of Microprocessors.
Fifth Generation Computers (2010 to Present & Beyond)
Scientists are working hard on the 5th generation computers with quite a few breakthroughs. It is based on the technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Computers can understand spoken words & imitate human reasoning. IBM Watson computer is one example that outsmarts Harvard University Students.
most influential or Important computers in history
Some individuals view the electronic transformation as being just a little over 50 years old– however the reality is, today’s most powerful computers are the result of years, centuries as well as also centuries of development.
At the start of the tale, you might argue, we human beings counted with our fingers, as well as from that clumsy procedure the Intel Core i7 was at some point birthed. To explore the genesis of the computer system we established ourselves a job.
We wished to warp back to the very earliest days of computing as well as track our means via to today. As we walked through the ages, we wished to determine one of the most prominent computers– machines that moved the course of calculating permanently. So, come with us as we see one of the most prominent computer systems ever made.
OK, so the abacus was rarely a computer system, but we actually can’t begin our journey anywhere else yet below. This forefather of all mechanised computing aids was first utilized in Samaria as well as go back to prior to 2,000 BC.
While all disappointed what we would certainly currently consider a computer system, numerous arithmetic devices were presented over the following the two centuries, several of which remained with us till the 20th century. One abacus offspring is the slide guideline.
This was an analogue calculating tool based on logarithms, and it was notoriously utilized by a number of boffins in the 1950 BBC election program to calculate the swing as each result was available in. The mechanical including machine, on the other hand, was a typical item of office equipment up until it was replaced by the electronic calculator in the late 1960s.
Babbage’s Difference Engine
An abacus, a slide regulation or an adding machine could each be made use of to execute a solitary computation. Babbage’s Difference Engine was fairly different. It was planned to carry out a series of computations. Made between 1847 and also 1849, it was never ever really constructed in Babbage’s life time.
In 1991, nonetheless, the London Scientific research Museum built a version to Babbage’s original strategies. It worked perfectly. Although it was a purely mechanical machine, driven by a crank manage and also containing gears, gears as well as bars, it accurately calculated and also printed tables of polynomials that were used for astronomy and ballistics. Next came Babbage’s steam powered Analytical Engine.
Unlike the Difference Engine, which was developed to carry out a specific type of calculation, the Analytical Engine was a programmable or universal computer in just the same means as today’s PCs. Undoubtedly, programs composed for it by Babbage’s contemporary Ada Lovelace bear a remarkable resemblance to modern computer programs.
Include all this up as well as you can say that the Analytic Engine represents an extra substantial step than the Difference Engine did. The trouble was that the Analytic Engine was never developed by anybody, therefore the machine continues to be mainly untried
Designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania under a US government contract, and intended for nuclear weapons research, ENIAC became the world’s first ‘universal’ electronic computer: in other words, one designed to do any job according to its programming.
It was completed in 1946, and its headline figures are startling. It contained 17,468 valves, 7,200 diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, and 10,000 capacitors, all held together by about five million hand-soldered joints. It weighed 27 tonnes, measured 2.6 m x 0.9 m x 26m, and consumed 150kW of electrical power.
When translated into today’s terms, it set Uncle Sam back about $6million– and that’s not including the power bill! Despite being the first universal computer, ENIAC differed in several important respects from its various successors.
For a start, it operated on decimal rather than binary arithmetic, something that contributed massively to the valve count– which was huge, given its rather pedestrian performance. More significantly, despite being universal in nature, ENIAC was programmed by plugging patch leads and configuring switches.
As a result, changing the machine’s configuration from one operation to another was a task that would typically take several days to complete– a far cry from the simple speed of loading a program from disk that we’re used to today.
The Manchester Baby
The Small Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), or Manchester Baby, was completed in 1948. It was dubbed Baby in an effort to differentiate the machine from its successor, the Manchester MK1. The SSEM was groundbreaking. Here was a computer that was fully electronic, truly universal and, for the first time, could execute a program stored in internal memory.
As it was the first ever stored program computer, we are able to draw some direct comparisons between the Manchester Baby and today’s PCs. It had 550 valves (transistors, integrated circuits and microprocessors were still some way off), and just seven instructions, which could be executed at a rate of 700 per second. It had 32 words of 32-bit memory.
Although you ‘d have to put several zeroes on the end of these figures to come close to describing today’s PCs, it’s fair to say that the world owes a debt of gratitude to SSEM’s creators Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn of the University of Manchester.
Even by the early ’60s, a dozen years after the pioneering SSEM, computers were still most definitely for the few rather than the many. IBM, which had entered the computer market back in 1953, was about to change all that. The IBM System/360 was launched in 1964, and is considered by some to have been the most successful mainframe computer of all time.
The System/360 had a 32-bit architecture, something that didn’t make its appearance in the PC market for another 21 years. Although few companies could afford to fully populate them, some models could take up to 4MB of memory. Perhaps the main attraction was that software developed for any model would run on any other, thereby permitting an upgrade path.
Despite the success of the IBM System/360, mainframe computers still remained the sole domain of moneyed government departments, universities and large corporations. Generally leased rather than bought, these machines could set their owners back a million dollars a year. The computers would also need a team of operators to care for the machines, further pushing up costs.
By the early 1960s, the race was on to downsize the computer and, in so doing, make computing accessible to smaller organisations. While other companies may have created mini-computers first, the first firm to really break into this embryonic market was Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Introduced in 1965, DEC’s PDP-8 was the first mini-computer to sell in significant numbers.
It was sold for a fraction of the price of even the smallest IBM System/360 mainframe. The CPU was about the size of one of today’s large PCs, and when the storage and other peripherals were added, the whole computer was about the size of a domestic fridge. Most importantly, it could be operated by the people who needed to use it.
It never sold as many as its successor– the hugely popular PDP-11, which was launched in 1970– but that doesn’t change the fact that the PDP-8 got there first.
Such was the magnificence of the PDP-8 and the mini-computer era it pioneered that it took a whole 16 years for the next true hero of computing to come along. There were some noteworthy efforts in the interim– the Apple II and the Commodore PET– but they were all overshadowed by the IBM 5150.
This pioneering machine was launched in 1981 and it kick-started the desktop PC revolution. Indeed, your desktop PC of today is very much its direct descendant. At the time, commercial success wasn’t exactly assured, because the 5150 was massively expensive.
The original 1981 PC sold for $1,565, which would be the equivalent of $3,900 (or ₤ 2,600) today! Despite these wallet-wilting features, the machine had a very sparse specification. For example, it didn’t come with a monitor:
you had to use a TV. It had 16kB of memory and, as hard drives were squarely a thing of the future, you had to make do with floppy drives. Even these were an optional extra– IBM intended 5150 machines to store data on cassette tapes.
COMPUTER GENRATION MCQ
The generation based on VLSI microprocessor.
The 4th gen was VLSI microprocessor based. The period of fourth generation: 1972-1990.
__ generation of computer started with using vacuum tubes as the basic components.
Batch processing was mainly used in this generation.
Batch processing was mainly used in the 1st generation. In this generation Punched cards, Paper tape, Magnetic tape Input & Output device were used.
ULSI stands for?
It stands for Ultra Large Scale Integration. It is a part of the fifth generation computers.
In this generation Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System was used
The fourth generation of computers is marked by the use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. In this generation Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System was used
HLL stands for?
High Level Language(HLL) has languages like FORTRAN, COBOL. HLL isn’t in machine language. It is converted to machine language for further processing.
The generation based on VLSI microprocessor.
The 4th gen was VLSI microprocessor based. The period of fourth generation: 1972-1990.